- Catalogue N°
- 874.012.001 - 1 x 96 Discovery (plate not included)
874.012.001P - 1 x 96 Discovery (non-sterile plate)
874.012.001S - 1 x 96 Discovery (sterile plate)
874.012.005 - 5 x 96 (plates not included)
874.012.005P - 5 x 96 (non-sterile plates)
874.012.005S - 5 x 96 (sterile plates)
874.012.010 - 10 x 96 (plates not included)
874.012.010P - 10 x 96 (non-sterile plates)
874.012.010S - 10 x 96 (sterile plates)
874.012.015 - 15 x 96 (plates not included)
874.012.015P - 15 x 96 (non-sterile plates)
874.012.015S - 15 x 96 (sterile plates)
874.012.020 - 20 x 96 (plates not included)
874.012.020P - 20 x 96 (non-sterile plates)
874.012.020S - 20 x 96 (sterile plates)
- Target species
- Recognizes natural human IL-10 and IFN-γ
- 3h30 after cell stimulation
- Cross Reaction
- No cross reactivity with other human cytokines. Cross reactivity with simian IFN-g.Cross reactivity with simian IL-10. No cross reactivity with viral IL-10
- Kit Content
- Diaclone Dual Fluorospot Sets include Capture antibody for cytokine 1, FITC-conjugated detection antibody for cytokine 1, anti-FITC antibody green fluorescence conjugate, capture antibody for cytokine 2, biotinylated detection antibody for cytokine 2, streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugate, BSA.
IFNg, also called Type II interferon, is a homodimeric glycoprotein containing approximately 21 to 24 kD subunits. The human IFNg gene, situated on chromosome 12, contains three introns; the four exons code for a polypeptide of 166 amino acids, 20 of which constitute the signal peptide. In contrast to IFNa and IFNb synthesis, which can occur in any cell, production of IFNg is a function of T cells and NK cells. All IFNg inducers activate T cells either in a polyclonal (mitogens or antibodies) or in a clonally restricted, antigen-specific, manner. IFNg is produced during infection by T cells of the cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype (CD8) and by a subtype of helper T cells, the Th1 cells. Th1 cells secrete IL-2, IL-3, TNFa and IFNg, whereas Th2 cells main produce IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10, but little or no IFNg . IFNg preferentially inhibits the proliferation of Th2 but not Th1 cells, indicating that the presence of IFNg during an immune response will result in the preferential proliferation of Th1 cells.
Type II IFN or IFNg is a lymphokine that displays no molecular homology with type I IFN, but shares some important biologic activities. Specifically, IFNg induces an anti-viral state and is anti-proliferative. In addition, IFNg has several properties related to immunoregulation.
1) IFNg is a potent activator of mononuclear phagocytes, e.g. IFNg stimulates the expression of Mac-1, augments endocytosis and phagocytosis by monocytes, and activates macrophages to kill tumor cells by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates and TNFa.
2) IFNg induces or augments the expression of MHC antigens on macrophages, T and B cells and some tumor cell lines.
3) On T and B cells IFNg promotes differentiation. It enhances proliferation of activated B cells and can act synergistically with IL-2 to increase immunoglobulin light-chain synthesis. IFNg is one of the natural B-cell differentiation factors.
4) Finally, IFNg activates neutrophils, NK cells and vascular endothelial cells.
The role of IFNg as a disease marker has been demonstrated for a number of different pathological situations:
- IFNg is produced during viral infections. IFNg is a diagnostic tool for distinguishing tuberculous from other nontuberculous ascites. IFNg values in pleural fluid are significantly higher in tuberculous pleuritis patients than those in non- tuberculous pleuritis patients, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. Therapy-induced (treatment with thalidomide) alleviation of clinical symptoms of erythema nodosum leprosum correlates with IFNg and TNFa levels. Tuberculoid leprosy patients show increased lymphocyte proliferation and IFNg production in response to stimulation with Mycobacterium leprae as compared to lepromatous leprosy patients and healthy individuals.
- Autoimmune diseases: Accurate measurements of cellular production of cytokines, e.g. IFNg is important in the design and monitoring of immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis.
- Transplant rejection: Intragraft IFNg mRNA expression occurs in active acute transplant rejection preceding clinical transplant rejection, thus offering an early diagnostic tool for detection of transplant rejection.
- IFNg production by isolated lymphocytes is not detectable in patients with cow's milk allergy as compared to control individuals. Infants who develop atopy produce significantly less IFNg at birth compared to infants who do not develop atopy.
- Peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells from newly diagnosed type I diabetes produce significantly less IFNg in comparison to controls and long standing diabetes.
Interleukin-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine playing an important role as a regulator of lymphoid and myeloid cell function. Due to the ability of IL-10 to block cytokine synthesis and several accessory cell functions of macrophages this cytokine is a potent suppressor of the effector functions of macrophages, T-cells and NK cells. In addition, IL-10 participates in regulating proliferation and differentiation of B-cells, mast cells and thymocytes. The primary structure of human IL-10 has been determined by cloning the cDNA encoding the cytokine. The corresponding protein exists at 160 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 18.5 kDa. Based on its primary structure, IL-10 is a member of the four -helix bundle family of cytokines . In solution human IL-10 is a homodimer with an apparent molecular mass of 39 kDa. Although it contains an N-linked glycosylation site, it lacks detectable carbohydrates. Recombinant protein expressed in E. coli thus retains all known biological activities. The human IL-10 gene is located on chromosome 1 and is present as a single copy in the genome.
The human IL-10 exhibits strong DNA and amino acid sequence homology to the murine IL-10 and an open reading frame in the Epstein- Barr virus genome, BCRF1 which shares many of the cellular cytokine's biological activities and may therefore play a role in the host-virus interaction. The immunosuppressive properties of IL-10 suggest a possible clinical use of IL-10 in suppressing rejections of grafts after organ transplantations. IL-10 can furthermore exert strong anti-inflammatory activities.
IL-10 in disease
IL-10 expression was shown to be elevated in parasite infections like in Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma infection.
Furthermore, high IL-10 expression was detected in mycobacterial infections as shown for Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium infections.
High expression levels of IL-10 are also found in retroviral infections inducing immunodeficiency.
Version 5 - 07.19
For research use only
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